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Droysen's notion of Hellenism has also deeply influenced the work of literary historians such as U. The rivalries between Greek cities and the interference of the great Hellenistic states in Greek affairs led to Roman intervention at the end of the third century and ultimately contributed to the transformation of Greece into a direct Roman dependency in 146 ) – though much stronger, had other sources of difficulty: they were faced by dynastic struggles in their midst, by frequent wars with their neighbors, and above all they had large native populations to control.
This collaboration was precarious in Greece alone, where consequently there was no political stability.
Macedonia, first defeated in 197, was reduced to impotence in 168 and transformed into a province in 149.
The Romans took full advantage of the difficulties of the Hellenistic states, played on the fear of social revolution among the wealthy Greeks, and exploited rivalries and native rebellions, with the result that they defeated and ultimately absorbed all the Hellenistic states.
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Scientific medicine flourished in Alexandria and elsewhere: The advances in anatomy (Herophilus), physiology (Erasistratus), etc., remained unsurpassed until the Renaissance. If some poets were obscure and full of subtle allusions to the literature of the past (Callimachus, Lycophron, Euphorion, and to a certain extent Theocritus), others were easily comprehensible (Menander, Herodas, and perhaps Apollonius Rhodius).
Natural sciences made enormous progress, and so did mathematics.
Euclid, Apollonius of Perge, and Archimedes represent the culmination of Greek research in geometry and mechanics.
Schneider) and in the field of the history of religions (F. The last act of resistance against the Romans during the Hellenistic period in the East was not Greek, but Jewish.
The Jewish rebellion of the Maccabees contributed to the further decline of the Seleucid state, which was transformed into a Roman province in 64 and ended in violent repression by the Romans.